Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapies, psychosocial rehabilitation programs and social interventions are a mainstay for most severe mental disorders, as these interventions have proven efficacy and effectiveness. However, not all patients and conditions respond equally favorable. Interventions were often developed mainly from clinical experience, with a lack of theoretical and empirical background in more basic research. The focus of our research group is the examination of novel psychosocial interventions for severe mental disorders with a special focus on methods which allow for a closer analysis of basic social-interactional, cognitive and neurocognitive processes. An increased understanding of the key processes underlying the impacts of psychosocial interventions can improve the benefits from these interventions for patients.